Topic outline

  • Introduction

    • Nowadays, you have numerous sources of information at your disposal.
      In the university context, preference should be given to using information from academic sources. Scientific research makes verifiable claims based on comprehensible methods and documents them so they are available for subsequent use.
      Academic sources (such as publications, studies and data) are therefore your first port of call for reliable information. Prior to using any information, be sure to verify that it actually comes from academic sources and check whether these are reliable.

  • Citable? Citation worthy?

    • If you wish to use information in an academic context, several requirements must be met:

      The source must be citable

      Can the source be found and is it available?

        In order to find the source, sufficient bibliographical information should be available. This includes the title, author, date of publication, edition and the publishing institution (publisher, authority, company, university).

        The source should be accessible to erveryone. This means that it should be available in locations open to the public, such as bookshops, libraries, archives or via permanent internet links.

        Please note: the retrievability of conference contributions, working papers and other unpublished materials is not always possible and must be checked carefully.

      The source must be citation worthy

      Does the source meet scientific quality criteria?

        In a first step, it must first be clarified whether the source is actually academic in nature. In a second, it must then be determined how well scientific quality criteria are met. This allows for a source’s citation worthiness to be evaluated (see also CRAAP-Test).

        Scientific quality criteria may include the following:

        • Treatment of an academic issue
        • Clear outline and structure
        • References to other texts and sources
        • Bibliography and possibly appendices
        • Scientific, precise terminology
        • Appropriate, comprehensible methodology and theoretical basis
  • Citation worthiness – CRAAP test