Nowadays, you have numerous sources of information at your disposal.
In the university context, preference should be given to using information from academic sources. Scientific research makes verifiable claims based on comprehensible methods and documents them so they are available for subsequent use.
Academic sources (such as publications, studies and data) are therefore your first port of call for reliable information. Prior to using any information, be sure to verify that it actually comes from academic sources and check whether these are reliable.
If you wish to use information in an academic context, several requirements must be met:
The source must be citable
Can the source be found and is it available?
In order to find the source, sufficient bibliographical information should be available. This includes the title, author, date of publication, edition and the publishing institution (publisher, authority, company, university).
The source should be accessible to erveryone. This means that it should be available in locations open to the public, such as bookshops, libraries, archives or via permanent internet links.
Please note: the retrievability of conference contributions, working papers and other unpublished materials is not always possible and must be checked carefully.
The source must be citation worthy
Does the source meet scientific quality criteria?
In a first step, it must first be clarified whether the source is actually academic in nature. In a second, it must then be determined how well scientific quality criteria are met. This allows for a source’s citation worthiness to be evaluated (see also CRAAP-Test).
Scientific quality criteria may include the following:
Treatment of an academic issue
Clear outline and structure
References to other texts and sources
Bibliography and possibly appendices
Scientific, precise terminology
Appropriate, comprehensible methodology and theoretical basis
Citation worthiness – CRAAP test
In English-speaking countries, the CRAAP test is a popular method for evaluating
the objective reliability of information. The test asks questions about the
five categories of Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy and Purpose, which are listed below. The questions in orange refer